историчар уметности, Урбанистички завод Београда, Београд


Зборник 6/2010 (Музеј примењене уметности), страна 117-130

711.558/.559(497.11); 725.18(497.11); 725.945(497.11)

Добровићев визионарски рад на осмишљавању „Великог Београда“ као метрополе на Сави и Дунаву, његов удео у изградњи Новог Београда “средишњег дела будућег Великог Београда”, који се до доношења Генералног урбанистичког плана 1950. године, одвијао под његовим руководством – то су биле смернице за сагледавање како простора „Старог београдског сајмишта“, коме се приступило као старом језгру Новог Београда, тако и простора у коме се налази тзв. „Добровићев Генералштаб“, доминантни урбанистички мотив „Великог Београда“, чија се симболика у потпуности уклапа у симболику изградње Новог Београда.Циљ овога рада је да подстакне као приоритетно: уређење ових простора, важних за идентитет града Београда, њихову рехабилитацију и њихово позиционирање на "видном месту" у „Стратегији развоја града Београда“.

Кључне речи:
културно-историјско наслеђе, урбанизам, архитектура, урбана морфологија, рехабилитација, ревитализација

Belgrade is а city with many different environments: it is partially spread over hills, partly it is situated in alluvium - the New Belgrade, and partly it is а city that lies on the loess flatland - Zemun. The capital symbols of Belgrade identity are rivers the Sava and the Danube. the confluence as а point where they join, but also the fact that in their immediate background there is а succession of spatial cultural-historical unities and cultural heritage such as: the fortress of Belgrade, the Кosančić Crescent, Old Belgrade fairground, the Old City complex. Senjak. Topčider Hill and Dedinje, the old center of Zemun and so on.

In order to preserve the complete image of Belgrade, it is а priority to formulate clearly the elements, that is to say, representative examples that are the landmarks of cultural-historic intertwining through time and space. We have chosen two examples, one on the right, and the other one on the left bank of the Save, in hope that it would encourage formulating (and later carrying through) the politics of their rehabilitation, as well as preventing physical, social and economic degradation of these significant historical city entities (by respecting the principles of integral conservation).

In spite of everything, these areas are still by dominated urban ( urban morphology) and architectural (architectural typology) relationships. These relationships were established during historical development of Belgrade and they still have а significant influence on the city life. One area is on the left bank of the Sava River, on the New Belgrade side. It is so called "the old Belgrade Fairground': an old entity of New Belgrade. The other area is on the right bank of the Sava River, in the old Belgrade, on the intersection of Knez Miloša and Nemanjina streets, the complex of buildings known as "Dobrović Headquarters".

Throughout the development of Belgrade, these two areas remain cultural-historic unities of great value. They are parts of the city with characteristic properties that the city is remembered by. In the wide spectrum of shapes that are present in architectural heritage, these areas stand out by recognizable spirit (genus loci) of Belgrade, but also for individual objects, examples of author architecture, as important landmarks in urban and social development of the city. "Monumentality of the object, should not be understood as dandyism of the buildings and costliness of used materials, but as а ratio of masses, areas, lines, not-built and built areas, dead architecture of buildings and live vegetation, that are reflected on its proportional harmonizing, implementation of strong strike, with which the plastic architecture of the city, both as а whole and its individual parts, gains on artistic significance" as it was written on one occasion by the author and creator of the General Urban plan of Belgrade 1950 and the author of the complex of buildings of Headquarters, the architect Nikola Dobrović.

The unity of space and composition of "Old Belgrade Fairground", not only had economic significance, but it also became а methaphor for а complex built according to а plan. The total outlook of the complex, and its compositional connection of every architectural object, influenced new perspectives of urban development of Belgrade on the left bank of the Sava river. The designs for "The Old Belgrade Fairgrounds" were created by architects Rajko Tatić, Milivој Тričković and Đorđe Lukić. In 1938, these three architect were awarded "The Medal of Yugoslav Crown" for making а general disposition of Old Belgrade Fairground and social pavillions.

The destiny of "Old Belgrade Fairground" has been pressing one for decades and no solution has been offered yet. Its building, not only advanced the modem image of Belgrade of that time, but also marked the beginning of modernization of Belgrade at аll urban levels. On the other side, "The Old Belgrade Fairground" is а monument and а memorial which task was to record а name of each victim, Jewish, Serbin, Roma and all other nationalities, but also the names of those who risked their lives by trying to save them. Their non marked and unknown graves have been scattered all over "The Old Belgrade Fairground". We hope that this "legacy for remembrance': and also nursery of modem space ideas, will soon be raised to the right level.

Symbolism of the building complex, that are according to its creator Nikola Dobrović, known today among experts and public as "Dobrovic Headquarters" fits the symbolisms of New Belgrade, "the central part of а future Great Belgrade", that was carried out under DoЬrović's leadership until the General Urban plan of Вelgrade was passed in 1950. He created and carried through the "Вelgrade Urban Plan from 1948". Among the names such as Franc Janke, Emilijan Josimović, Alban Šambon, Đorde Кovaljevski and many other important people in the history of Belgrade urbanism, there is also the name of Nikola Dobrović. Understanding the multilayered personality of Nikola Dobrović during the period of new political situation on the territory of former Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and then the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and later Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. and from 1945, the period of socialist "Restoring and building" all the way to his death in 1967, is done by а systematic analysis of a large number of joint parameters that undoubtedly defined his construction logic.

Primarily new materials, new technologies, new techniques, and above all, new methodologies are taken into account Injustice and his emotional defeats in Belgrade construction field follow him today, forty years after his death. During the NATO bombing in 1999 the building collapsed completely. It has no function any longer, but the symbolic character of the place is present even in the ruins, warning us that it was the only work that was realized by the architect Dobrović in Вelgrade. Total erasing of this complex from the tap of city space would break historical continuity of this area and one of the landmarks of the city identity would have disappeared.

The purpose of this work is to spur action on these objects that are essential fur identity of the City of Belgrade. They are priorities for rehabilitation and emphasizing the importance of making them "visible" in "The Strategic Plan for the development of City of Belgrade".

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