istoričar umetnosti, Muzej rrada Novor Sada, Novi Sad
IZfLED GRAĐANSKIH ENTERIJERA U NOVOM SADU KRAJEM 19. I POČETKOM 20. VEKA
TNE APPEARANCE OF BOURGEOIS INTERIORS IN NOVI SAD AT TNE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURY
Zbornik 6/2010 (Muzej primenjene umetnosti), strana 27-42
U tekstu je dat opšti uvid u istoriju primenjene umetnosti u Novom Sadu krajem 19. i početkom 20. veka, sagledan kroz prizmu kulture stanovanja građanske populacije. Navedeni period može da se podeli u dve epohe koje su vidljive u uređenju enterijera, ali koje se i međusobno prepliću. Mešavine stilova bile su karakteristične za period istoricizma, od poslednjih decenija 19. veka do Prvog svetskog rata, dok su se uticaji secesije pojavili na prekretnici vekova. Muzejske i privatne zaostavštine, literarni i foto izvori, kao i veliki broj novinskih oglasa iz tog perioda pokazuju da je Novi Sad bio sredina u kojoj se mnogo polagalo na adekvatno uređenje stambenog prostora i gde su postojale brojne radnje u kojima su prodavani uvozni i domaći proizvodi, od nameštaja do upotrebnih predmeta od metala, porcelana, stakla, keramike i tekstila. Istovremeno, delatnost Savke Subotić, Jelice Belović-Bernadžikovske i Dragutina Inkiostrija Medenjaka u Novom Sadu ukazuje na postojanje domaće struje u razvoju primenjene umetnosti koja je zagovarala opremanje enterijera u nacionalnom stilu. U drugoj polovini 20. veka, pred naletom modernizma u uređenju prostora, izgubljen je veliki deo autentičnih novosadskih enterijera iz prethodnih epoha, pa je njihovo proučavanje danas znatno otežano.
Novi Sad, primenjena umetnost, enterijeri, 19-20. vek, istoricizam, secesija
Situated at the crossroads, 19th. century Novi Sad went through urban and architectural developments which were dominated by late baroque, neo-classicism, and subsequently all historical forms characteristic for other towns in the Pannonia plain. 19th century architecture, fine arts and applied arts studies need to be divided into two periods: period up to 1849 when the mixture of oriental and medieval culture dominated the city and period after the bombardment when the oldest remaining architectural corpus in the city; built in the fashion of contemporary European styles, was formed.
Intensive urban growth, city regulation, population growth and increase in prosperity introduced standards for comfortable and settled city life, so that families of craftsmen, tradesmen, clerks and of the intellectuals aspired to live in keeping with their social status, income and upbringing. At the end of the 19tЬ century, mainly one-floor-family houses were built in the centre of Novi Sad. On the ground floor there were usually premises for family business, and the household units were on the first floor. Drawing room, living room and master bedroom were the most presentable parts of the house and they were furnished in the fashion of that time. А11 significant inventory, invaluable for studying the development of applied arts, was located in these three rooms. Collecting, storing and exhibiting different objects became а social responsibility of every city family; and the lady of the house would make an effort to acquire good quality furniture, carpets, curtains, porcelain and silverware, books, paintings, musical instruments, family albums and souvenirs. А wom.an had an important role in arranging and keeping а household. With her taste, skills and neatness she tried to create ambience that would correspond to the family needs and aspirations of bourgeois society.
Contrary to simplicity and stylish purity of Biedermeier interior, in historicist city spaces from the last decades of 19th century, people accumulated objects of all shapes and for different purposes, without desire to stylistically uniform them. Simple late baroque and practical Biedermeier pieces were replaced with massive neostyles furniture; especially popular were the "Alt Deutsch" units. The household furniture was used by many generations, and it has remained in museum and private collections. Cabinet making began in Novi Sad around mid 19th century; the largest manufactures were those that belonged to families Mennratt and Dusig. А large number of shops had household merchandise, usually of foreign origin. At the end of 19th century Novi Sad citizens filled their interiors with everyday and decorative objects made of metal, ceramic, porcelain, glass, decorative textile and art works. Lady of the house would often combine elements of Balkan and western cultures, both traditional and modem. Esthetics of historicism implied tolerance of products coming from different cultures, among these, oriental products were especially popular. Development of graphical disciplines made it possible to reproduce many significant art objects; especially popular were national themes and paintings of the most famous Serbian painters of that time.
Around 1900 the influence of secession was noticeable in Novi Sad, especially in architecture and applied arts. Despite the lack of а locally organized movement that would gather the supporters for the new international movement, an impetus came from socially engaged individuals, trained architects, trade agents, students and travelers that brought news, ideas and goods in demand New living conditions and standards in Novi Sad were noticeable from the first decade of the 20th century. Larger number of living units imposed more practical and simpler arrangement of space, good lighting and introduction of central heating. Pieces modeled in the style of French, German and Hungarian secession were more and more to Ъе found in homes, and their decorativeness, functionality and, often low cost, attracted many buyers. Technological process made available many objects that were made of different kinds of metal, ceramic and glass. New forms of furniture were bought to а smaller extent, and usually from foreign factories. At the same time, decorative textile was used in interiors, so there was а mixture of industrial and handmade materials, traditional and international ornaments and samples. Many women from Novi Sad did handiwork. using advice and patterns from the magazines.
At the turn of the 20th century, there appeared an array of people whose theoretical and practical work influenced all segments of fine and applied arts. Books and texts Ьу Мihailo Valtrović, Slobodan and Vladislav Titelbah, Savka Subotić, Jelica Belovic-Bernadžikovska, Dragutin Inkiostri Medenjak and others developed ideas about modernization and adjusting Serbian motifs to the demands of modern market and bourgeois society. Their work, although based on emphasizing national heritage, was completely in harmony with art movements that appeared all over Europe at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th century.
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